What are the widespread performance enhancing drugs and supplements in young athletes?

From: Paediatrics

Journal rating:
rating: 99%
Study Quality:
rating: 10%
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Overall Reliability

Article Quality:
rating: 25%
Partcipants
rating: 0%

Participants/situation

  • The paper is a review of the existing literature.

Study

  • The paper is a systematic review / meta analysis of all relevant trials.
  • This means that the data from all similar trials has been grouped to form an overall outcome.

Results

Anabolic-androgenic steroids

  • Category; Controlled substance
  • Goals of Use; Gain muscle mass, strength
  • Athletic Effect; Increase muscle mass, strength
  • Adverse Effects; Multiple organ systems: infertility, gynecomastia, female virilization, hypertension, atherosclerosis, physeal closure, aggression, depression
  • Notes; A cohort of nearly 50,000 students, showed a 1.3%, 2.3%, and 3.3% annual prevalence of male steroid users in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, respectively, in 2004. Girls in the 12th grade had a 1.7% use rate of steroids in the past year,

 

Androstenedione

  • Category; Controlled substance
  • Goals of Use; Increase testosterone to gain muscle mass, strength
  • Athletic Effect; No measurable effect
  • Adverse Effects; Increase estrogens in men; overlaps systemic risks with steroids
  • Notes: Androstenedione now is banned by all major sporting leagues, including Olympic and collegiate sports.

 

DHEA

  • Category;Nutritional supplement
  • Goals of Use; Increase testosterone to gain muscle mass, strength
  • Athletic Effect; No measurable effect
  • Adverse Effects; Increase estrogens in men; impurities in preparation
  • Notes; DHEA’s recommended dosing is in a range of 50 to 100 mg/day for up to 1 year. The number of adverse effects increases at doses that exceed this amount.

 

Growth hormone

  • Category; Controlled substance
  • Goals of Use; Increase muscle mass, strength, and definition 
  • Athletic Effect; Decreases subcutaneous fat; no performance effect
  • Adverse Effects; Acromegaly effects: increased lipids, myopathy, glucose intolerance.
  • Notes; Growth hormone is a banned by all major sporting leagues. However, no reliable test to detect use by athletes has been developed.

 

Creatine

  • Category; Nutritional supplement
  • Goals of Use; Gain muscle mass, strength
  • Athletic Effect; Increase muscle strength gains; performance benefit in short, anaerobic tasks
  • Adverse Effects; Dehydration, muscle cramps, gastrointestinal distress, compromised renal function
  • Notes; Creatine is recommended to be taken first in a loading phase, with athletes consuming 5 g 4 times per day for the first 4 to 6 days. The standard dosing then is 2 g/day for the next 3 months.

 

Ephedra alkaloids

  • Category; Possibly returning as nutritional supplement
  • Goals of Use; Increase weight loss, delay fatigue
  • Athletic Effect; Increases metabolism; no clear performance benefit
  • Adverse Effects; Cerebral vascular accident, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, seizure, psychosis, hypertension, death
  • Notes; A 2004 survey, which examined 5 male collegiate ice hockey Division I teams and found that 38% used ephedrine and 46% using pseudoephedrine in cold remedies, hoping to boost performance.

Answer

  • See results section

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